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Tag: brain

Leopard geckos can grow new brain cells, study finds

Leopard geckos can grow new brain cells, study finds

Science
July 27 (UPI) -- Many reptiles and amphibians boast impressive tissue regeneration abilities. But only geckos are known to be able to grow new neurons. For the first time, University of Guelph researchers have identified the presence of stem cells responsible for neuron generation in the brains of leopard geckos. Scientists used a chemical tag that was incorporated into the DNA of stem cells that allowed them to track where stem cells traveled and what types of cells they became. Scientists were able to follow the tags to the lizard's medial cortex -- an oft-studied analog to the human brain's hippocampus -- where they witnessed the generation of new brain cells. "The findings indicate that gecko brains are constantly renewing brain cells, something that humans are notoriously bad at doi...
Deep brain stimulation promising for mild Alzheimer's patients older than 65

Deep brain stimulation promising for mild Alzheimer's patients older than 65

Health
June 19 (UPI) -- Alzheimer's patients older than 65 benefit the most benefit from deep brain stimulation, according to findings from a recent phase II clinical trial. Researchers at Toronto Western Hospital's Krembil Neuroscience Center for two years have been studying the stimulation of the fornix, a bundle of nerve fibers in the brain between the hippocampus and the hypothalamus. The findings, published this month in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, are an analysis of follow-up data during the second 12 months of a 2016 clinical trial. "We are encouraged by these findings as they continue to help us identify who will benefit most from DBS to treat Alzheimer's disease and learn more about this illness," Dr. Andres Lozano, a neurosurgeon at the Krembil Neuroscience Center and principa...
Foods with carbs and fats together make the brain light up more, study finds

Foods with carbs and fats together make the brain light up more, study finds

Health
On a platter of cheese, pretzels and donuts, most people will probably reach for the donuts, according to a new study. That could be because the brain values foods like donuts, with both fats and carbohydrates, more than foods high in only fats, like the cheese, or only carbs, like the pretzels. People could be wired to want that deadly combo: Fats and carbohydrates together. "We were interested in exploring mechanisms that drive food reinforcement," lead author Dana Small, director of Yale University’s Modern Diet and Physiology Research Center, told ABC News. So how do the digestive and emotional system work for different types of macronutrients, like carbs and fats? And how do "man-made," processed foods that contain both fats and carbs affect these mechanisms? To find out, ...
Changes to tiny blood vessels may help diagnose traumatic brain injuries

Changes to tiny blood vessels may help diagnose traumatic brain injuries

Health
April 30 (UPI) -- By finding changes to tiny blood vessels in the brains of people with traumatic injuries, researchers believe medical personnel could be able to make more precise diagnosis and treatment decisions.Researchers found that changes in the blood vessels may be linked to a range of cognitive symptoms after a traumatic brain injury, or TBI. The research, which was led by the University of Pennsylvania, was presented Friday at the American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting and has not yet been published."The relationship between microvascular and structural injury in chronic TBI has been recognized for years, but underappreciated," Dr. Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, director of the Traumatic Brain Injury Clinical Research Center at the Perelman School of Medicine at Pennsylvania, said in...
Miniature human brain implants survive, grow inside mice for months

Miniature human brain implants survive, grow inside mice for months

Science
April 16 (UPI) -- Miniature human brains, or human brain organoids, can survive and grow after being implanted in the skulls of mice. It's the first time human cerebral organoids have been installed inside another species.Researchers describe the breakthrough in a new paper published Monday in the journal Nature Biotechnology.Scientists grew the pea-sized brains from stem cells and then placed them inside the skulls of mice. Researchers removed a small amount of tissue to make room for the miniature brains. Tiny, transparent windows in the skulls of the test mice allowed scientists to keep tabs on the brain implants -- the organoids were also designed to express a green fluorescent protein, causing them to glow inside the mice skulls.Roughly 80 percent of the implants were successfully rec...