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Languages affected differently by brain disease

Languages affected differently by brain disease

Health
There are differences in the way English and Italian speakers are affected by dementia-related language problems, a small study suggests.While English speakers had trouble pronouncing words, Italian speakers came out with shorter, simpler sentences.The findings could help ensure accurate diagnoses for people from different cultures, the researchers said.Diagnostic criteria are often based on English-speaking patients.In the University of California study of 20 English-speaking patients and 18 Italian-speaking patients, all had primary progressive aphasia - a neuro-degenerative disease which affects areas of the brain linked to language.It is a feature of Alzheimer's disease and other dementia disorders.Brain scans and tests showe...
Girl hit by foul ball at Astros game has permanent brain injury

Girl hit by foul ball at Astros game has permanent brain injury

Sports
Jan. 8 (UPI) -- A girl hit by a foul ball at a Houston Astros game in May has permanent brain damage, her attorney said. The 2-year-old girl was hit in the head by the ball off the bat of Chicago Cubs outfielder Albert Almora Jr. on May 29 at Minute Maid Park in Houston. She suffered a seizure and sustained a fractured skull as a result of the incident. She also had subdural bleeding, brain contusions, brain edema and brain activity issues, her attorney said. "She has an injury to a part of the brain, and it is permanent," attorney Richard Mithoff told the Houston Chronicle. "She remains subject to seizures and is on medication and will be, perhaps, for the rest of her life." The girl remains in treatment for the brain injuries. Doctors have not determined if she has cognitive deficits....
Brain ‘shrinks’ if children neglected

Brain ‘shrinks’ if children neglected

Health
An early life full of neglect, deprivation and adversity leads to people growing up with smaller brains, a study suggests. The researchers at King's College London were following adopted children who spent time in "hellhole" Romanian orphanages.They grew up with brains 8.6% smaller than other adoptees.The researchers said it was the "first and most compelling" evidence of the impact on the developing brain. The appalling care at the orphanages came to light after the fall of Romania's communist dictator Nicolae Ceausescu in 1989."I remember TV pictures of those institutions, they were shocking," Prof Edmund Sonuga-Barke, who now leads the study following those children, told the BBC. He described the institutions as "hellholes" where children were "chaine...
Brain response to pleasure, pain may inform new mental health treatments

Brain response to pleasure, pain may inform new mental health treatments

Health
Dec. 31 (UPI) -- The human brain is naturally trained to seek pleasure and avoid pain. Now, a new study in mice has provided some clues into how these processes occur. The findings, published Tuesday in the journal Neuron, may improve understanding of the way the brain performs in people with certain mental health disorders. "Behavioral changes in people with depression or stress-induced anxiety may be caused by changes" in how the brain responds to positive and negative stimuli, said Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory professor and study lead author Bo Li, in a press release. Li and his colleagues believe their work has revealed that different classes of neurons control positive and negative motivation and transmit opposing signals along a shared motivation-processing brain circuit. Ultimat...
Brain imaging may predict mood, attention disorders in children

Brain imaging may predict mood, attention disorders in children

Health
Dec. 26 (UPI) -- Brain imaging may help identify children at risk for mood disorders as they grow up, a new study suggests. In findings published Thursday in the journal JAMA Psychiatry, researchers were essentially able to predict attention problems, as well as mood disorders such as depression and anxiety, in young grade school children using functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI. Although additional research is needed to confirm and expand upon these results, the authors told UPI their findings mean that brain imaging could one day be used as a screening tool for these disorders. "A child's brain and behavior change a fair amount over the years," said co-author Silvia Bunge, professor of developmental psychology at the University of California at Berkeley. "A minor issue, suc...