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Tag: Crust

Ancient crystals suggest Earth’s crust enjoyed growth spurt 3 billion years ago

Ancient crystals suggest Earth’s crust enjoyed growth spurt 3 billion years ago

Science
Jan. 12 (UPI) -- Ancient crystals recovered from stream sediments in Greenland suggest bits of Earth's primordial crust seeded the growth of later generations of crust. According to a new study published Tuesday in the journal Nature Communications, the process fueled a massive crustal growth three billion years ago. Advertisement Scientists were able identify the origins of the ancient growth spurt by analyzing the chemistry of crystals eroded from ancient rocks. The chemical makeup of the ancient zircon crystals, found among modern stream sediment in Greenland, revealed signatures left their incorporation into younger crustal rocks and sediment during what scientists call lithospheric reworking. "We found there was a widespread bloom in crust production three billion years ago, during ...
Earth has been recycling crust for most of its history

Earth has been recycling crust for most of its history

Science
June 26 (UPI) -- New research suggests roughly 5 to 6 percent of the Earth's mantle is made up of recycled crust. The discovery, detailed Friday in the journal Science Advances, suggests Earth has been producing new crust at a similar rate for most of the planet's history. Advertisement Geologists knew that some of Earth's crust regularly sinks back into the mantle, but until now, they weren't sure how much gets recycled -- a key to understanding the history of crustal formation and subduction. To better understand the trajectory of crust that gets swallowed back into the mantle, scientists collected 500 samples of basalt from mid-ocean ridges all over the world. "The chemical composition of oceanic basalt -- Mid-Oceanic Ridge Basalt, or MORB -- that erupted along the 40,000-kilometer lo...
Violent meteorite impacts forged parts of the lunar crust

Violent meteorite impacts forged parts of the lunar crust

Science
May 11 (UPI) -- Parts of the moon's crust were forged by large and violent meteorite impacts, according to new research published Monday in the journal Nature Astronomy. Analysis of a lunar rock, brought home by astronauts on NASA's 1972 Apollo 17 mission, revealed the presence of minerals that can only form at temperatures greater than 4,300 degrees Fahrenheit -- the kind of temperatures generated by large impact events. Researchers found evidence of a specific phase of cubic zirconia inside the lunar rock, a phase only produced at high temperatures. The mineral has since reverted to baddeleyite, but the signature of its cubic zirconia phase remains imprinted in the structure of the baddeleyite crystals. Scientists were able to date the baddeleyite to 4.3 billion years ago, which sugges...
Are Oprah’s New Frozen Cauliflower Crust Pizzas Actually Healthy?

Are Oprah’s New Frozen Cauliflower Crust Pizzas Actually Healthy?

Health
We're dying to dive in—but first, a nutritionist gives us her expert insight. Oprah Winfrey’s line of packaged foods, O, That’s Good!, just dropped four varieties of frozen cauliflower crust pizza, which have 1/3 of the flour in the crust replaced with cauliflower puree. The pizzas are the latest additions to this packaged comfort food line launched by Kraft Heinz and Oprah last year, featuring tasty eats such as mashed potatoes and mac and cheese.  RELATED: 7 Fresh and Healthy Vegetable Pizza Recipes Cauliflower pizza crust has become a superstar food trend over the past few years, driven by consumers who are looking for gluten-free, low-carb, or vegan...