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Tag: Early

Iron-silica particles reveal early oxygen accumulation on Earth

Iron-silica particles reveal early oxygen accumulation on Earth

Science
Aug. 7 (UPI) -- Iron and silica particles played an important part in the early accumulation of oxygen in Earth's oceans, according to new research. Cyanobacteria's photosynthetic activity supplied Earth's ancient oceans with oxygen, but the blue-green algae couldn't have survived the sun's ultraviolet rays without the protection of iron and silica particles, according to a new study in the journal Nature Communications. In the lab, scientists modeled the impact of UV rays on ancient sea water and cyanobacteria. The experiments showed elevated silica and iron concentrations enable the formation of iron-silica precipitates. These suspended particles shielded cyanobacteria from harmful radiation. "In effect, the iron-silica particles acted as an ancient 'sunscreen' for the cyanobacteria, pr...
Here's why most Americans tap their retirement savings early

Here's why most Americans tap their retirement savings early

Finance
Most people don't intend to raid their retirement accounts — and that's just the problem. Tapping your retirement dollars early is almost always considered taboo, although, at times, it can seem unavoidable. By far, the majority of Americans said they dipped into their retirement funds to pay off debt or bills, according to a recent report by GoBankingRates. The other most common reasons cited were to cover a financial emergency or medical expense. Less than 10 pe...
Boulders offer new clues about early human migration to the Americas

Boulders offer new clues about early human migration to the Americas

Science
June 1 (UPI) -- Recent archaeological evidence has sparked a new theory of when and how the first people came to the Americas. Scientists now theorize that the first Americans took a coastal route along Alaska's Pacific border to enter the continent. This new theory casts doubt on the conventional one that says the earliest settlers came from Siberia, crossing the now-defunct Bering land bridge on foot and then moving through Canada when corridors opened between massive ice sheets at the end of the last ice age. A new geological study published this week in the journal Science Advances offers compelling evidence to support the new theory. A research team led by the University of Buffalo analyzed boulders and bedrock, traveling by helicopter to four remote islands within the Alexander Arc...
Breath test can save money and catch cancer early

Breath test can save money and catch cancer early

Health
The only way to test for symptoms of stomach or esophageal cancer is to undergo an upper endoscopy, a test that can be invasive, cost thousands of dollars and has a small percentage of success in actually finding a tumor. Researchers in the U.K. wanted a diagnostic tool that would be easier and cheaper to test for these cancers so they used a noninvasive breath test to collect samples of 500cc of exhaled breath from 335 people, 172 of which they knew had those cancers, after a minimum four-hour fast. The exhaled breath was quickly analyzed for five previously identified volatile organic compounds (VOCs), known to have some association with gastric and esophageal cancers (VOCs happen with other cancers, including lung, bladder, and breast). The researchers were looking for evidence of bu...
Hole in cow's skull may be proof of early medical experimentation

Hole in cow's skull may be proof of early medical experimentation

Science
April 19 (UPI) -- More than 5,000 years ago, a group of people living in what's now France drilled a hole in a cow's head. Researchers believe the ancient bovine skull is the earliest evidence of animal surgery yet recovered.Scientists used advanced imaging to study the hole and determined it could not have been made by a violent encounter with another animal. Aside from the hole, the skull and related bones show no evidence of trauma. As such, scientists believe the hole was made purposefully by humans.Paleontologists and archaeologists have found similar holes in human skulls as old as 10,000 years."I have analyzed many, many human skulls ... all from the neolithic period and they all show the same techniques -- and the technique you can observe in the cow's skull [is] the same," Fernand...