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Keeping livers 'alive' boosts transplant success, trial finds

Keeping livers 'alive' boosts transplant success, trial finds

Health
Keeping donated livers "alive" with a machine prior to transplants boosts the chances of a successful operation, a landmark trial has found.Usually livers are kept in ice prior before the surgery, but many become damaged and unusable as a result. For this study, scientists put them in a perfusion machine, pumping the organs with blood, nutrients and medicines.More of these "warm" livers went on to be transplanted and showed less damage than the "cold" ones, the trial found.Scientists said the study could help to reduce the significant proportion of people who die waiting for a new liver and potentially "transform" how organ transplants are carried out. Record number of organ donors in 2017'Warmed liver' transplant first'Major impact'The randomised controlled trial involved 222 liver tran...
ESA's Mars Express finds possible supervolcano remnant

ESA's Mars Express finds possible supervolcano remnant

Science
April 13 (UPI) -- ESA's Mars Express has photographed a unique and mysterious geologic structure on the Martian surface.Astronomers aren't sure of the crater's origins. The crater, dubbed Ismenia Patera, may have been created by a meteorite impact. It's also possible the imprint was left behind by an ancient supervolcano.The layout and structural patterns seen in and around Ismenia Patera are different and more complex than the typical impact crater. Uneven lumps of rock are found scattered around the outer edge of the crater.Scientists believe the rocky deposits are debris ejected by neighboring impacts. These miniature impacts have created their own system of gullies inside Ismenia Patera.The crater's floor is dynamic, too, showing signs of movement. The floor is likely composed of a roc...
Regular excess drinking can take years off your life, study finds

Regular excess drinking can take years off your life, study finds

Health
Regularly drinking above the UK alcohol guidelines can take years off your life, according to a major report.The study of 600,000 drinkers estimated that having 10 to 15 alcoholic drinks every week could shorten a person's life by between one and two years.And they warned that people who drink more than 18 drinks a week could lose four to five years of their lives. The 2016 UK guidelines recommend no more than 14 units a week, which is six pints of beer or seven glasses of wine. Authors of the Lancet study said their findings backed up the new guidelines and also said they did not find an increased risk of death for light drinkers. Scientists, who compared the health and drinking habits of alcohol drinkers in 19 countries, modelled how much life a person could expect to lose if they drank...
Sahara has grown 10% in 100 years, research finds

Sahara has grown 10% in 100 years, research finds

Science
March 30 (UPI) -- Africa's Sahara Desert has grown 10 percent in nearly 100 years, according to a new study by scientists at the University of Maryland.The Sahara, which is the world's largest warm-weather desert and roughly equal in size to the contiguous United States with 3.6 million square miles, has expanded by 11 percent to 18 percent depending on the season.The study was published Thursday in the American Meteorological Society's Journal of Climate.The researchers analyzed annual rainfall data recorded throughout Africa until 2013. When the average rainfall is less than 4 inches of rain per year or less, an area is considered a desert."The trends in Africa of hot summers getting hotter and rainy seasons drying out are linked with factors that include increasing greenhouse gases and ...
Earth's water present before impact formed moon, study finds

Earth's water present before impact formed moon, study finds

Science
March 29 (UPI) -- Based on an extensive collection of lunar and terrestrial samples, researchers have determined that most of the water on Earth was already present at the time of the impact that created the moon.Scientists from the United States, Britain and France studied moon rocks brought back to Earth by astronauts on the six Apollo missions and volcanic rocks retrieved from the ocean floor by Earth-bound scientists. They published their findings Thursday in the journal Science Advances."The research discovered only a small difference in oxygen composition between the lunar and terrestrial rocks," Dr. Richard Greenwood, a research fellow at The New University in England and lead author of the new study, said in a press release. "This demonstrates how well mixed all of the pieces of ro...