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Tag: formation

Study reveals key mechanism in formation of spider silk

Study reveals key mechanism in formation of spider silk

Science
May 29 (UPI) -- A team of scientists has discovered a previously unidentified structural component key to the formation of spider silk and its extraordinary strength. Prized for its strength and flexibility, material scientists have long tried to produce synthetic analogs for spider silk. The results of previous efforts, however, have been mixed. Studies have shown the importance of beta sheets, or beta strands, the secondary structure in spider silk proteins, but scientists have struggled to understand how these strength-giving structures form. The transformation from soluble proteins to crystalized silk happens fast, making it difficult to study the proteins' structures. In order to gain new insights into the formation process, scientists at Japan's RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resourc...
Rising temperatures enabled peatland formation at the end of the last ice age

Rising temperatures enabled peatland formation at the end of the last ice age

Science
April 16 (UPI) -- New research suggests periods of global warming during the last ice age encouraged the formation of peatlands.Researchers began by designing a computer model to simulate local climate patterns during the last 26,000 years. The last ice age reached its glacial maximum between 26,000 and 22,000 years ago, after which glaciers began to retreat.Scientists also created a timeline of peatland formation using radiocarbon dating peat samples collected in North America, northern Europe and Patagonia. When they compared their timeline with their model's simulations, they found higher local summer temperatures, not increased rainfall, accurately predicted peatland formation."This work helps explain the genesis of one of the world's most important ecosystem types and its potentially ...
Did Kentucky troll Louisville with $ band formation at rivalry game?

Did Kentucky troll Louisville with $ band formation at rivalry game?

Sports
Nov. 25 (UPI) -- The University of Kentucky's band formed a giant dollar sign on the field Saturday, but the band director denies it was aimed at Louisville.Kentucky's band pulled off the formation at halftime at Commonwealth Stadium in Lexington. The Cardinals won the game 44-17.Many fans in the Twitterverse were quick to relate the formation to Louisville's scandal, which led to the firing of coach Rick Pitino and athletic director Tom Jurich. The school's athletic board voted unanimously to fire Pitino in October after an FBI investigation into fraud and corruption rocked college basketball.Pitino has since filed a lawsuit against Adidas, seeking unspecified damages.The FBI allegations against Louisville included $ 100,000 in payments to the family of an unnamed player to sign with the ...
Study reveals secrets of planet formation

Study reveals secrets of planet formation

Science
Oct. 13 (UPI) -- Scientists have discovered a new explanation for how young stars and their newborn planets avoid "radial drift," a phenomenon that can rob stellar systems of their planet-forming material.Most planets form as material coalesces in a star's circumstellar disk of dust and debris. But debris disks can also diffuse or be eaten up by their host star, and researchers have struggled to figure out why this doesn't happen more often.Gas in a circumstellar disk should exert a drag force on debris, pulling the dust inward where it is consumed by the host star. The process, called radial drift, can deplete the material a young stellar system needs to form and grow planets.But new images of the debris disk surrounding the star V1247 Orionis has offered scientists insights into how youn...
Study reveals importance of hydrogen atoms for star formation

Study reveals importance of hydrogen atoms for star formation

Science
Oct. 10 (UPI) -- Until recently, astronomers assumed hydrogen molecules fueled star formation in young galaxies. But new research suggests atomic hydrogen may be equally important to star formation.In the local universe, most hydrogen found inside galaxies exists as individual atoms. Scientists assumed younger galaxies would host less atomic hydrogen and more molecular hydrogen. But cosmic surveys suggest even the earliest galaxies were rich in atomic hydrogen.Now, new analysis by researchers at the University of Western Australia and the International Center for Radio Astronomy Research confirms even galaxies featuring intense rates of star formation host large amounts of atomic hydrogen.Previous studies of "cosmic noon" galaxies have revealed massive reservoirs of molecular hydrogen. Cos...