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Tag: Genome

Nobel Prize for chemistry awarded for ‘genome scissors’

Nobel Prize for chemistry awarded for ‘genome scissors’

Technology
French scientist Emmanuelle Charpentier and American Jennifer AByThe Associated PressOctober 7, 2020, 10:14 AM• 2 min readShare to FacebookShare to TwitterEmail this articleSTOCKHOLM -- French scientist Emmanuelle Charpentier and American Jennifer A. Doudna have won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for developing a method of genome editing likened to “molecular scissors” that offer the promise of one day curing genetic diseases.The recipients were announced Wednesday in Stockholm by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.“There is enormous power in this genetic tool, which affects us all,” said Claes Gustafsson, chair of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry. "It has not only revolutionised basic science, but also resulted in innovative crops and will lead to ground-breaking new medical treatments....
Genome editing strategy could give rice, other crops nutritional boost

Genome editing strategy could give rice, other crops nutritional boost

Science
March 5 (UPI) -- Scientists have developed a new genome engineering strategy for boosting the levels of beta carotene, the precursor of vitamin A, in rice. The novel CRISPR technology method, described this week in the journal Nature Communications, could help plant scientists engineer healthier, more robust crops. Typically, genetic engineers use a special bacterium to transfer beta carotene-producing genes into the rice genome, but the technique is imprecise. Transgenes can end up in unwanted locations in the genome, compromising the plant's health and reducing yields. Scientists at the University of California Davis came up with a better way. "We used CRISPR to precisely target those genes onto genomic safe harbors, or chromosomal regions that we know won't cause any adverse effects ...
Pineapple genome offers insights into plant domestication process

Pineapple genome offers insights into plant domestication process

Science
Sept. 30 (UPI) -- The newly sequenced pineapple genome has offered researchers fresh insights into the plant domestication process. Pineapple varieties are grown for a variety of purposes: for fiber, as an ornamental and, most famously, as a delicious fruit. Scientists at the Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology at the University of Illinois sequenced the genome of the red pineapple and compared it to the genomes of several other cultivars. Their efforts -- detailed Monday in the journal Nature Genetics -- revealed evidence supporting their hypothesis, that pineapples can be domesticated in a single step, sans seeds, using cuttings and other methods. "We have chosen major pineapple cultivars worldwide ... to test our hypothesis of 'one-step operation' in domestication of clonally ...
HIV genome helps determine antibodies formed in people with the virus

HIV genome helps determine antibodies formed in people with the virus

Health
Sept. 11 (UPI) -- Researchers found that HIV itself plays a major role in determining which antibodies are formed in people, which may be important for developing a vaccine against it. A Swiss research team led by the University of Zurich and University Hospital Zurich has been searching for the factors that play a role in these antibodies' production. Their findings were published Monday in the journal Nature. HIV, which stands for human immunodeficiency virus, spreads through certain body fluids that attack the body's immune system, including T cells. Over time, these infections take advantage of a weak immune system and become acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Previously identified factors that played a role in the body's immune response were: the virus load and the diversit...
Golden eagle genome study 'a conservation game changer'

Golden eagle genome study 'a conservation game changer'

Science
British scientists have made a breakthrough that could help safeguard the future of one of the world's most admired birds - the golden eagle.The majestic king of birds is under threat in some areas, but a study led by the Wellcome Sanger Institute could help them return to those spots.The work to unravel their genetic code is part of a mission to sequence 25 new genomes of UK species.One of the team described the development as a "real game changer". What is a genome and how could it be useful? "We're all made of the same four letters of code," explained Julia Wilson, association director of the Wellcome Sanger Institute. "It's a blueprint written in your DNA - half com...