News That Matters

Tag: human

First human trial of live, weakened Zika vaccine underway

First human trial of live, weakened Zika vaccine underway

Health
Aug. 16 (UPI) -- The first clinical trial of a live, weakened Zika vaccine in humans has begun, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases announced on Thursday. The vaccine for Zika, a disease mainly spread by mosquitoes, was developed by scientists at the NIAID, the agency announced. NIAIA is sponsoring the trial among 28 healthy, non-pregnant adults ages 18 to 50 at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for Immunization Research in Baltimore, Md., and at the Vaccine Testing Center at the Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont in Burlington. Twenty participants will receive the Zika vaccine and eight will get a placebo, according to ClinicalTrials.gov. No licensed vaccines for Zika virus infection are available, although several are ...
Being human: Big toe clung on longest to primate origins

Being human: Big toe clung on longest to primate origins

Science
Scientists have found that our big toe was one of the last parts of the foot to evolve, a study suggests.As our early ancestors began to walk on two legs, they would also have hung about in trees, using their feet to grasp branches. They walked differently on the ground, but were still able to move around quite efficiently. The rigid big toe that eventually evolved gives efficient push-off power during walking and running.The findings have been published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. In this new study, scientists made 3D scans of the toe bone joints from living and fossil human relatives, including primates such as apes and monkeys, and then compared them to modern day humans. They overla...
Researchers isolate ancient parvovirus from human remains

Researchers isolate ancient parvovirus from human remains

Science
July 13 (UPI) -- Scientists have isolated an ancient sample of the parvovirus from human remains, which could provide researchers with detailed knowledge of extinct genetic diversity and viral phylodynamics. An international collaborative of researchers recently reported their analysis of ancient human parvovirus samples taken from the dental and skeletal remains of 1,578 people who lived between 500 and 6,900 years ago. They published the findings in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Airborne and bloodborne human parvovirus B19 is responsible for multiple illnesses, including the childhood rash known as fifth disease, chronic anemia in AIDS patients, arthritis in the elderly, aplastic crisis in people with bone marrow-related illness and hydrops fetalis in pregnant wo...
HIV vaccine shows promise in human trial

HIV vaccine shows promise in human trial

Health
An HIV vaccine that has the potential to protect people around the world from the virus has shown promising results. The treatment, which aims to provide immunity against various strains of the virus, produced an anti-HIV immune system response in tests on 393 people, a study in the Lancet found. It also protected some monkeys from a virus that is similar to HIV. More testing is now needed to determine if the immune response produced can prevent HIV infection in people. About 37 million people worldwide live with HIV or Aids, and there are an estimated 1.8 million new cases every year.But despite advances in treatment for HIV, both a cure and a vaccine for the virus have so far remained elusive. The drug Prep, or pre-exposure prophylaxis, is effective at ...
Rat remains reveal 2,000 years of human impact on Pacific island ecosystems

Rat remains reveal 2,000 years of human impact on Pacific island ecosystems

Science
June 5 (UPI) -- New analysis of ancient rat remains have helped scientists trace the impacts of humans on Pacific island ecosystems as far back as 2,000 years ago. Many scientists argue the Earth has entered a new geological epoch called the Anthropocene, an era defined by humans' growing impact on the planet's ecosystems. While some believe the era began between 50 and 300 years ago, a growing body of research suggests humans began altering the planet's geology, biodiversity and climate several thousands of years ago. Several studies, for example, have shown early human populations in South America left a definite ecological signature on the parts of the Amazon. But measuring the ecological impacts of early humans isn't easy. As part of the latest study, scientists looked to rat remains...