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Three-dimensional skyrmion: Scientists observe theoretical particle for first time

Three-dimensional skyrmion: Scientists observe theoretical particle for first time

Science
March 2 (UPI) -- Forty years after scientists first theoretically predicted the existence of a three-dimensional skyrmion, scientists have observed the particle in the lab.The particle, observed cold quantum gas, isn't a normal particle composed of electrons, protons and electrons. It is a quantum particle, the energy signature created by the interactions between a particle and the surrounding system.In this instance, the quantum particle is a tangled knot of magnetic moments in the quantum gas."The quantum gas is cooled down to a very low temperature where it forms a Bose-Einstein condensate: all atoms in the gas end up in the state of minimum energy," David Hall, a professor of quantum physics at Amherst College, said in a news release. "The state does not behave like an ordinary gas any...
Astronomers observe most-distant supermassive black hole yet discovered

Astronomers observe most-distant supermassive black hole yet discovered

Science
Dec. 6 (UPI) -- Astronomers have spied the most-distant supermassive black hole yet discovered using the Magellan Telescopes at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile.The black hole is positioned at the center of a quasar, the massive, highly luminous accretion disks found at the center of many galaxies. The quasar's light traveled some 13 billion light-years before reaching the Magellan Telescopes.The new observations -- detailed in the journal Nature -- reveal the black hole as it was just 690 million years after the birth of the universe.Scientists were surprised by the black hole's tremendous mass, 800 million times the mass of the sun."Gathering all this mass in fewer than 690 million years is an enormous challenge for theories of supermassive black hole growth," Eduardo BaƱados, an as
Astronomers observe one of the oldest galaxies in the universe

Astronomers observe one of the oldest galaxies in the universe

Science
Nov. 6 (UPI) -- Astronomers have observed the second most distant dust-filled, star-forming galaxy in the cosmos. The galaxy was spotted using the Large Millimeter Telescope, the most powerful telescope of its kind.The LMT is positioned at the top of Sierra Negra, the fifth tallest peak in Mexico, and jointly operated by the University of Massachusetts, Amherst and Mexico's National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics.The newly imaged galaxy was likely one of the earliest star-forming galaxies in the universe."The Big Bang happened 13.7 billion years ago, and now we are seeing this galaxy from 12.8 billion years ago, so it was forming within the first billion years after the Big Bang," Amherst astrophysicist Min Yun said in a news release. "Seeing an object within the first b...