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Tag: oxygen

Changes in oxygen, temperature could reshape deep sea fish communities

Changes in oxygen, temperature could reshape deep sea fish communities

Science
March 5 (UPI) -- The size and complexity of marine ecosystems make it difficult to predict the effects of climate change, especially on deep sea communities. But thanks to the efforts of a team of marine biologists and oceanographers, scientists are gaining a better understanding of the influence of oxygen and temperature on the density and diversity of deep sea fish populations. The study, led by scientists with the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California San Diego and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, focused on demersal fish communities in the Gulf of California. Demersal fish are fish that live close to the seafloor. Their data and observations showed fish diversity dramatically declines in regions with very low levels of oxygen, concentrations...
Climate change: Oceans running out of oxygen as temperatures rise

Climate change: Oceans running out of oxygen as temperatures rise

Science
Climate change and nutrient pollution are driving the oxygen from our oceans, and threatening many species of fish.That's the conclusion of the biggest study of its kind, undertaken by conservation group IUCN.While nutrient run-off has been known for decades, researchers say that climate change is making the lack of oxygen worse. Around 700 ocean sites are now suffering from low oxygen, compared with 45 in the 1960s. Researchers say the depletion is threatening species including tuna, marlin and sharks.The threat to oceans from nutrient run-off of chemicals such as nitrogen and phosphorus from farms and industry has long been known to impact the levels of oxygen in the sea waters and still remains the primary factor, especially closer to coasts.However, i...
Nasa probes oxygen mystery on Mars

Nasa probes oxygen mystery on Mars

Science
The oxygen in Martian air is changing in a way that can't currently be explained by known chemical processes.That's the claim of scientists working on the Curiosity rover mission, who have been taking measurements of the gas.They discovered that the amount of oxygen in Martian "air" rose by 30% in spring and summer.The pattern remains a mystery, but researchers are beginning to narrow the possibilities.While the changes are most likely to be geological in nature, planetary scientists can't completely rule out an explanation involving microbial life.The results come from nearly six Earth years' (three Martian years') worth of data from the Sample Analysis at Mars (Sam) instrument, a portable chemistry lab in the belly of the Curio...
How cells sense oxygen wins Nobel prize

How cells sense oxygen wins Nobel prize

Health
Three scientists who discovered how cells sense and adapt to oxygen levels have won the 2019 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine.Our body's cells use oxygen to convert food into usable energy.The trio - British Sir Peter Ratcliffe and two Americans, William Kaelin and Gregg Semenza - discovered how cells adapt when oxygen levels drop.The Swedish Academy said their "elegant" findings were leading to treatments for anaemia and even cancer. It said: "The fundamental importance of oxygen has been understood for centuries, but how cells adapt to changes in levels of oxygen has long been unknown."Sir Peter Ratcliffe is based at the Francis Crick Institute in the UK, William Kaelin at Harvard in the US and Gregg Semenza at Johns Hopkins University in the US.O...
Iron-silica particles reveal early oxygen accumulation on Earth

Iron-silica particles reveal early oxygen accumulation on Earth

Science
Aug. 7 (UPI) -- Iron and silica particles played an important part in the early accumulation of oxygen in Earth's oceans, according to new research. Cyanobacteria's photosynthetic activity supplied Earth's ancient oceans with oxygen, but the blue-green algae couldn't have survived the sun's ultraviolet rays without the protection of iron and silica particles, according to a new study in the journal Nature Communications. In the lab, scientists modeled the impact of UV rays on ancient sea water and cyanobacteria. The experiments showed elevated silica and iron concentrations enable the formation of iron-silica precipitates. These suspended particles shielded cyanobacteria from harmful radiation. "In effect, the iron-silica particles acted as an ancient 'sunscreen' for the cyanobacteria, pr...