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Hole in cow's skull may be proof of early medical experimentation

Hole in cow's skull may be proof of early medical experimentation

Science
April 19 (UPI) -- More than 5,000 years ago, a group of people living in what's now France drilled a hole in a cow's head. Researchers believe the ancient bovine skull is the earliest evidence of animal surgery yet recovered.Scientists used advanced imaging to study the hole and determined it could not have been made by a violent encounter with another animal. Aside from the hole, the skull and related bones show no evidence of trauma. As such, scientists believe the hole was made purposefully by humans.Paleontologists and archaeologists have found similar holes in human skulls as old as 10,000 years."I have analyzed many, many human skulls ... all from the neolithic period and they all show the same techniques -- and the technique you can observe in the cow's skull [is] the same," Fernand...
Scientists publish 3D-printing plans for 200-million-year-old dinosaur skull

Scientists publish 3D-printing plans for 200-million-year-old dinosaur skull

Science
Jan. 12 (UPI) -- Anyone with access to a 3D printer can now create a replica of a 200-million-year-old dinosaur skull.Scientists at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, used advanced CT scanning technology to image and digitally reconstruct -- bone by bone -- a detailed 3D model of the skull of Massospondylus, a sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Early Jurassic.The researchers published their rendering of the ancient dino skull this week in the journal PeerJ."This means any researcher or member of the public can print their own Massospondylus skull at home," Kimi Chapelle, a PhD student at the Evolutionary Studies Institute at Wits, said in a news release.Massospondylus is one of the most famous dinosaurs in South Africa. Its fossil record is rich. But the lates...